In order to achieve as much consistency as possible in the written work we produce, please adhere to the following guidelines. The guidelines, which (in general) are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., should be followed in the preparation of text for the website, the Quarterly, and the Annual.
- All articles should be submitted in Microsoft Word using Times, Times New Roman, or Minion Pro fonts in a 12-point size, single spaced. (Final publication will be in Minion Pro.) If you need to use a specialized font for something, please let the editor know.
- You can also submit a PDF or a separate Word file with images imbedded to suggest layout and image placement in addition to your Word file with text only. If you are submitting a file with text only, you should indicate where in the text you suggest an image be placed by adding "(fig. 1)" or some similar indication in the appropriate place in the text.
- Leave one space between sentences (not two).
- Do not use superscript ordinals (e.g., 19th, not 19th). You must disable this feature in Word, by changing your settings, as follows: Click on Tools, then AutoCorrect Options, then AutoFormat as you type, then uncheck the “ordinals” box. Then click the AutoFormat tab and do the same thing. You must uncheck both boxes for this to work.
- Centuries in Arabic, not spelled out, unless appearing at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., books printed in the 19th century).
- Hyphenate words that together constitute an adjective; e.g., 19th-century books, well-worn path but not in a phrase such as "books published in the 19th century." See Chicago Manual re phrasal adjectives. Exception: no hyphen in adjectival uses of "African American" (e.g. African American history).
- Spell out numbers less than 100, unless many numbers occur in a paragraph or a series of paragraphs. See Chicago Manual.
- Spell "catalog," "cataloger," "cataloging," etc. without a "u."
- All references should be endnotes, not footnotes, and numbering of endnotes should use Arabic numbers, not Roman numerals.
- References should follow the format of the Chicago Manual of Style, chapter 15 ( http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/16/ch15/ch15_toc.html ). See below for samples.
- Please include your name, email address, and phone number at the end of your article to facilitate communication.
- For the Annual: Please include a brief biography of yourself in a few sentences.
Other Common Styles
- When naming clergy, use the article "the" before the abbreviation "Rev." (e.g., the Rev. Martin Luther King). Do not refer to clergy as "a reverend" or "the reverend"; use minister, priest, etc., as appropriate. "Reverend" is analogous to "Honorable" and should be used in the same way.
- Consider supplying life spans in parentheses after the first mention of a person’s name. Do so if it adds to the understanding of the text. Follow Chicago Manual rules for inclusive dates (e.g., 1700–99; 1701–1801).
- Use en dashes between dates and page numbers, not hyphens, as seen in the dates above.
- Within text, put commas on both sides of an appositive phrase (e.g., the Library Company of Philadelphia, which celebrated its 275th anniversary in 2006, is ....). Also, be aware of how commas can change the meaning of a sentence. (e.g., "Library of Congress trustee, Peter Brown, spoke . . ." suggests that the Library of Congress has only one trustee, named Peter Brown. In this example, there should be no commas.)
- When naming items in a series, do put a comma before the conjunction (e.g., books, periodicals, and graphic material). [Note the difference between "I would like to thank my parents, God and Beyoncé," and "I would like to thank my parents, God, and Beyoncé."]
- In the month-day-year style of dates, commas are used both before and after the year. But where month and year only are given, no commas are needed (i.e., follow Chicago Manual 6.46).
- Use commas to set off the individual elements in address (e.g., He went to Concord, New Hampshire, last winter). In bibliographies, lists, etc., do not use the two-letter post office form to abbreviate states’ names (e.g., use "N.J." rather than "NJ" and "Ill." rather than "IL"). (Chicago Manual 15.29, with option to use older form.)
- Note that "e.g." and "i.e." are not italicized (Chicago Manual 6.44).
- Italicize the titles of books and periodicals (rather than underlining them).
Preparing Images for Publication
- Images should be sent as TIFFs or JPEGs at level 12 (least compression) at 300 dpi at a minimum of 1200 pixels wide for one-column images and 2400 pixels in the longest dimension for full-page images. If you embed images in a Word document or PDF to indicate suggested placement, you also need to send high-res images separately. Also, these file sizes should be native, that is, if you have smaller images just upsizing them is not useful as they will not print as clearly.
- When photographing images for publication, make sure you employ lens correction in your editing software before sending them. This will help correct any lens distortion, especially the curvature of straight lines.
- File Naming Conventions: Each image file name should consist of your name, a hyphen, then the figure or plate number or a caption identifier if no figure or plate numbers are used in your article, e.g.: Daguerre-Fig1, or Daguerre-MountTabor.
- Exact caption information, including any credit information, must accompany your images. This can be done in a Word document and, if possible, also in the metadata in the image file.
Captions for Illustrations
Please embed your image citations and filenames in the original essay file.
Scale will be determined by the type of image and the image placement within the text. Please try to avoid images that are text heavy as they are difficult to read even in full-page placement.
For printed texts
Author, Title (Place, Date). [Collection of …]
Robert B. Lewis, Light and Truth, from Ancient and Sacred History (Portland, 1836).
For articles in periodicals:
Author, “Title of article,” Title of Periodical (Date of issue). [Gift of/Bequest of ....]
“Harbor Police of New York,” Harper’s New Monthly (October, 1872).
Edgar A. Poe, “The Literati of New York City. No. IV,” Godey’s Lady’s Book (January, 1843).
Artist, Title (Place, Date). Medium. [Gift of/Bequest of ...]
Rembrandt Peale, Woman with a Mirror (Philadelphia, 1826). Lithograph. Collection of Sarah Smith.
- Every caption should have a title and a date at the minimum.
- If you do not have an author or artist, begin with the title.
- If the corporate author is the same as your title (as it often is with advertising ephemera), begin with the title.
- If you do not have the place, specify date only.
- If you have an edited work, make a judgment on whether the editor’s name is significant in your text. If it is, supply it in place of the author’s name with the abbreviation “ed.” for editor, e.g., Rufus Griswold, ed. Otherwise, begin with the title.
- Similarly, if the publisher (and/or printer) is significant in your text, include it, e.g., Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, 1829.
- In titles, capitalize the significant words according to Chicago Manual 8.167. Basically, capitalize the initial word and all significant words thereafter (but not articles and prepositions). However, the Chicago Manual does gives you leeway when articles and prepositions are significant.
- When you have an alternative title, include it with commas before and after the “or,” in any language. E.g., Forget-me-not, or, The Philopene.
- Do not include the subtitle unless its wording is essential to convey meaning, e.g., The Gift: A Christmas and New Year’s Present.
- If you use a phrase to characterize the image, do not use italics, e.g., Thomas Crehore. Playing cards (Dorchester, Mass., 1820). Do not use brackets.
- But ... for any title of an artistic work (photograph, painting, drawing, statue, etc.), follow 8.206 in the Chicago Manual: italicize the title “whether the titles are original, added by someone other than the artist, or translated.”
- If the date is supplied, make a judgment on whether it can be included as such (e.g., if it’s a copyright date), if it needs to be a date span (e.g., ca. 1800–1803), or whether it can get a broader specification (e.g., 18th c.). Do not use brackets.
- Do consider adding “Detail from,” “Frontispiece from,” “Illustration from,” etc., e.g., Illustration from Anna C. Reed, The Life of George Washington (Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, 1829). McAllister Collection.